The Effect of Pay-to-Play Models on Student Academic Achievement and Attendance

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)


Educational Administration

Date of Award

Spring 2018


The purpose of this study was to determine whether using pay-to-play models for extracurricular programs would help with high student attendance rates and academic success compared to schools that do not use pay-to-play models. Attendance rates and academic success rates on the Algebra 1 end-of-course (EOC) exams were analyzed using public charter high school campuses for the 2014-2015 school year. A quasi-experimental quantitative study was used to compare overall school-year campus attendance rates and academic success on the Algebra 1 EOC exams between the campuses that do and do not use the pay-to-play model. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test. The sample size was 128, with 64 campuses for each group--those campuses that use the pay-to-play model and those campuses that do not use the pay-to-play model. The researcher focused on the benefits inherent in participation in extracurricular activities relating to (a) the pay-to-play model, (b) No Pass No Play, (c) academic variables, and (d) attendance variables. The findings support the positive correlation between extracurricular participation and academic success for campuses that used the pay-to-play model. In addition, the findings indicated a positive relationship between campuses that used the pay-to-play model and their attendance data versus those campuses that did not use the pay-to-play model. The findings in this study will provide school leaders, leaders of extracurricular organizations, and the University Interscholastic League with needed guidance to begin developing a successful extracurricular program that supports attendance and academics. Identifying whether the pay-to-play model affects attendance rates and academic success on the Algebra 1 EOC exams will lead future researchers to identify a model support program that will allow schools to provide more funds toward extracurricular programs that enhance attendance rates and EOC results.


Melissa Arrambide

Subject Categories

Education | Educational Administration and Supervision | Educational Leadership