A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded Within Massively Mulitplayer Online Role-Playing Games (Mmorpgs)


Leslie Haas

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)


Educational Leadership

Date of Award

Spring 2012


This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was examined for frequencies and percentages of embedded Tier I, Tier II, and Tier III vocabulary words. These three tiers are representative of basic (Tier I), complex (Tier II), and content specific (Tier III) words. Four independent chi square analyses reviewed differences between frequencies and percentages of Tier I, II, and II embedded vocabulary. These analyses reviewed differences within each individual MMORPG, within each MMOPRG among its category (P2P; F2P), and within P2P and F2P categories as a whole. Results revealed statistically significant differences between variables in all four analyses. In general, P2P MMORPGs' frequencies and percentages were higher than F2P MMORPGs'. However, the MMORPG with the second highest overall frequency count and percentage based on all six games (Lord of the Rings) was from the F2P category. While, the MMORPG with the lowest overall frequency count and percentage based on all six games (Empire: Total War) was from the P2P category. It is important to take note of these inconsistencies in understanding that not all P2P and F2P MMORPGs are created equally and therefore do not offer equal opportunities for vocabulary exposure.


Wayne M. Linek

Subject Categories

Education | Educational Leadership