Influence of Parallel Dark Matter Sectors on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



Date of Award

Spring 2017


Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is a phenomenological theory that describes the synthesis of light nuclei after a few seconds of the cosmic time in the primordial universe. The twelve nuclear reactions in the first few seconds of the cosmic history are constrained by factors such as baryon to photon ratio, number of neutrino families, and present day element abundances. The belief that the expansion of the universe must be slowed down by gravity, was defeated by the recent observation of an accelerated expansion of the universe. Friedmann equations, which describe the cosmic dynamics, need to be revised considering also the existence of dark matter, another recent astronomical observation. The effects of multiple parallel universes of dark matter (dark sectors) on the accelerated expansion of the universe are studied. Collectively, these additional effects will lead to a new cosmological model. We had developed a numerical code on BBN to address the effects of such dark sectors on the abundances of all the light elements. We have studied the effect of degrees of freedom of dark-matter in the early universe on primordial abundances of light elements. The predicted abundances of light elements are compared with observed constraints to obtain bounds on the number of dark sectors, NDM. Comparison of the obtained results with the observations during the BBN epoch shows that the number of dark matter sectors are only loosely constrained, and the dark matter sectors are colder than the ordinary matter sectors. Also, we verified that the existence of parallel dark matter sectors with colder temperatures does not affect the constraints set by observations on the number of neutrino families, Nν .


Carlos Bertulani

Subject Categories

Physical Sciences and Mathematics | Physics