The Proportionate Costs of Title I Supplemental Educational Services: Effect of Time in Treatment on Student Achievement

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)


Educational Administration

Date of Award

Spring 2014


Since the inception of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act (P.L. 107-110), the debate continues regarding supplemental education service (SES) providers and their effectiveness in improving student achievement. NCLB requires districts to use an amount equal to at least 20% out if their Title I, Part A funds (U.S.D.E, 2011) to offer SES to students in schools that are in the second year of school improvement. Per pupil allocations, coupled with widely varying hourly rates charged by SES providers, are key factors of time in treatment. This study assessed the effectiveness of SES on student achievement by time in treatment, determined if there is a minimum threshold that can be attributed to student achievement, and analyzed the cost of reaching that threshold. A quasi-experimental design using pre-/post-program matched sample comparison of non-equivalent groups utilizing the 2012 and 2013 State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) was conducted. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a .05 level of significance was employed, using the Expected Gain Score (EGS) (Russell, 2000), as the dependent variable and students who participated more than six hours as the independent variable was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The minimum "threshold" of time in treatment hours provided by SES critical for producing significant gains were calculated using a regression equation (Y = .611+β1(.00014) ) predicting each student's individual growth score based on total math minutes to solve for the number of minutes necessary to meet the EGS. Once minimum threshold of time in treatment was established, the cost of achieving that effect was calculated, analyzing the fiscal impact and determining the cost/benefit ratio of implementing this federally unfunded mandate. The results of this study found there was no statistical relationship between time in treatment in SES tutoring and gains from the 2012 to 2013 Math STAAR for the entire data set or by the five individual providers serving the largest market share. This study also found that a seventh grade student would need 554 hours, an allocation of $34,626.35, at an SES per hour rate of $62.43 to maintain their NCE.


James Vornberg

Subject Categories

Education | Educational Administration and Supervision