An Exploration of Campus Administrators’ Perceived Self-Efficacy in Conducting Instructional Feedback Conferences with Teachers After Practicing with Virtual Reality

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)


Educational Administration

Date of Award

Fall 2020


Teacher evaluation has evolved since the early settlement days (Jewell, 2016) into the current system that is designed to hold teachers accountable for student learning as well as to support professional growth of the teachers (Darling-Hammond, 2013; Darling-Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983; Marzano & Toth, 2013). Texas’s teacher evaluation system, T-TESS, is designed in accordance with those beliefs, including an emphasis on conferences between the appraiser and the teacher (Texas Education Agency, 2016b). The T-TESS Appraiser Manual (2016a) provides a list of suggested coaching questions for campus administrators to use to support the instructional feedback conferences; however, there is no additional support for campus administrators to develop their skill and efficacy in conducting these instructional feedback conferences. This research was designed to investigate administrators’ perceived skill and self-efficacy after the use of a virtual reality tool that is designed to provide opportunities for administrators to practice conducting these instructional feedback conferences in a safe, non-threatening, and collaborative environment. This narrative inquiry research was conducted in a medium sized district outside of Dallas and included seven participants that were secondary campus administrators serving grades six through 12. Each participant perceived an increase in their self-efficacy and skill level in conducting instructional feedback conferences after engaging in the virtual reality simulations. However, participants attributed the increases more directly to the collaborative discussions and feedback between and among participants after the virtual reality sessions. The improvement in efficacy and skill was not solely attributed to the virtual reality tool, but rather how it is used as part of a comprehensive program. The simulations were seen as powerful only when accompanied by collaborative, debrief sessions with the other participants.


Melissa Arrambide

Subject Categories

Education | Educational Administration and Supervision