A Quantitative Ex-Post Facto Study of Elementary Teachers’ Stages of Concerns About the New English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)


Educational Administration

Date of Award

Spring 2021


In this quantitative, ex-post facto study, the researcher explored kindergarten through 5th-grade teachers’ stages of concerns about the 2019–2020 implementation of the new Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading and Skills by years of teaching experience, by hours of professional development taken before implementation of the new standards, and by instructional practices used during the 1st year of implementation. This study used a quantitative ex-post facto analysis of teacher responses to a standard instrument. Participants included kindergarten through 5th-grade teachers from urban, suburban, and rural school districts throughout the state.Keywords: content standards; English language arts, instructional strategies, implementation, literacy, professional development.


Julia Ballenger

Subject Categories

Education | Educational Administration and Supervision