The Impact of Creative Online Group Supervision on Counselors-in-Training: A Single-Case Research Study

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)



Date of Award

Spring 2021


The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of creative online group supervision on the counseling self-efficacy of counselors-in-training (CITs), utilizing a multiple baseline single-case research design (SCRD). Eight participants elected to participate in a weekly hour-long creative online supervision group. CITs completed the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE; Larson et al., 1992) during the baseline (A) phase and the nine-week treatment (B) phase to self-assess for counseling self-efficacy. The researcher conducted visual analysis, as well as calculating descriptive statistics (i.e., mean and standard deviation for each phase) and an effect size using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP; Parker & Vannest, 2009) for each participant’s data. Four participants experienced a statistically significant large effect improvement in self-efficacy, one participant experienced a non-statistically significant large effect improvement, one participant experienced a non-statistically significant medium effect improvement, one participant experienced a non-statistically significant small effect improvement, and the final participant experienced a slight decline in self-efficacy. All participants reflected positively on their experiences in the creative online supervision group. Self-identified professional growth areas included perspective-taking, new techniques for working with clients for whom talk-only therapy does not fit well, improved professional identity, and enhanced use of questioning and prompting. Self-identified personal growth areas included increased openness and vulnerability, opportunity for self-reflection and introspection, accessing deep emotions, and improved self-awareness. The author discusses implications for these findings in the arenas of counselor education and supervision.


Stephen Armstrong

Subject Categories

Counseling | Social and Behavioral Sciences